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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-Q
 
(Mark One)
þ
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended May 5, 2019
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-33608
 
lululemon athletica inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
20-3842867
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
1818 Cornwall Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia
V6J 1C7
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:
604-732-6124
Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report:
N/A
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.005 per share
LULU
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (of for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
þ
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
o
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes o No þ
At June 7, 2019, there were 122,894,703 shares of the registrant's common stock, par value $0.005 per share, outstanding.
Exchangeable and Special Voting Shares:
At June 7, 2019, there were outstanding 7,380,860 exchangeable shares of Lulu Canadian Holding, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the registrant. Exchangeable shares are exchangeable for an equal number of shares of the registrant's common stock.
In addition, at June 7, 2019, the registrant had outstanding 7,380,860 shares of special voting stock, through which the holders of exchangeable shares of Lulu Canadian Holding, Inc. may exercise their voting rights with respect to the registrant. The special voting stock and the registrant's common stock generally vote together as a single class on all matters on which the common stock is entitled to vote.
 


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 6.
 
 

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PART I
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
lululemon athletica inc.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited; Amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
 
May 5,
2019
 
February 3,
2019
ASSETS
Current assets
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
576,241


$
881,320

Accounts receivable
 
20,105

 
35,786

Inventories
 
443,006

 
404,842

Prepaid and receivable income taxes
 
82,200

 
49,385

Other prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
50,032

 
57,949

 
 
1,171,584

 
1,429,282

Property and equipment, net
 
582,738

 
567,237

Right-of-use lease assets
 
626,974

 

Goodwill
 
24,094

 
24,239

Deferred income tax assets
 
26,312

 
26,549

Other non-current assets
 
31,318

 
37,404

 
 
$
2,463,020

 
$
2,084,711

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
 
$
88,258

 
$
95,533

Accrued inventory liabilities
 
8,900

 
16,241

Accrued compensation and related expenses
 
75,286

 
109,181

Current lease liabilities
 
127,180

 

Current income taxes payable
 
9,377

 
67,412

Unredeemed gift card liability
 
85,215

 
99,412

Other current liabilities
 
108,726

 
112,698

 
 
502,942

 
500,477

Non-current lease liabilities
 
537,758

 

Non-current income taxes payable
 
38,090

 
42,099

Deferred income tax liabilities
 
13,834

 
14,249

Other non-current liabilities
 
3,676

 
81,911

 
 
1,096,300

 
638,736

Commitments and contingencies
 
 
 
 
Stockholders' equity
 
 
 
 
Undesignated preferred stock, $0.01 par value: 5,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding
 

 

Exchangeable stock, no par value: 60,000 shares authorized; 7,381 and 9,332 issued and outstanding
 

 

Special voting stock, $0.000005 par value: 60,000 shares authorized; 7,381 and 9,332 issued and outstanding
 

 

Common stock, $0.005 par value: 400,000 shares authorized; 122,900 and 121,600 issued and outstanding
 
615

 
608

Additional paid-in capital
 
317,204

 
315,285

Retained earnings
 
1,281,432

 
1,346,890

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
 
(232,531
)
 
(216,808
)
 
 
1,366,720

 
1,445,975

 
 
$
2,463,020

 
$
2,084,711

See accompanying notes to the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements

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lululemon athletica inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited; Amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
Net revenue
 
$
782,315

 
$
649,706

Cost of goods sold
 
360,595

 
304,973

Gross profit
 
421,720

 
344,733

Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
292,908

 
240,428

Income from operations
 
128,812

 
104,305

Other income (expense), net
 
2,379

 
2,918

Income before income tax expense
 
131,191

 
107,223

Income tax expense
 
34,588

 
32,070

Net income
 
$
96,603

 
$
75,153

 
 
 
 
 
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustment
 
(15,723
)
 
(42,972
)
Comprehensive income
 
$
80,880

 
$
32,181

 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
 
$
0.74

 
$
0.55

Diluted earnings per share
 
$
0.74

 
$
0.55

Basic weighted-average number of shares outstanding
 
130,694

 
135,502

Diluted weighted-average number of shares outstanding
 
131,337

 
135,931

See accompanying notes to the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements
 

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lululemon athletica inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
(Unaudited; Amounts in thousands)
 
 
Quarter Ended May 5, 2019
 
 
Exchangeable Stock
 
Special Voting Stock
 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Retained Earnings
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Total
 
 
Shares
 
Shares
 
Par Value
 
Shares
 
Par Value
 
 
 
 
Balance at February 3, 2019
 
9,332

 
9,332

 
$

 
121,600

 
$
608

 
$
315,285

 
$
1,346,890

 
$
(216,808
)
 
$
1,445,975

Net income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
96,603

 
 
 
96,603

Foreign currency translation adjustment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(15,723
)
 
(15,723
)
Common stock issued upon exchange of exchangeable shares
 
(1,951
)
 
(1,951
)
 

 
1,951

 
10

 
(10
)
 
 
 
 
 

Stock-based compensation expense
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10,157

 
 
 
 
 
10,157

Common stock issued upon settlement of stock-based compensation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
464

 
2

 
12,175

 
 
 
 
 
12,177

Shares withheld related to net share settlement of stock-based compensation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(115
)
 
(1
)
 
(18,938
)
 
 
 
 
 
(18,939
)
Repurchase of common stock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1,000
)
 
(4
)
 
(1,465
)
 
(162,061
)
 
 
 
(163,530
)
Balance at May 5, 2019
 
7,381

 
7,381

 
$

 
122,900

 
$
615

 
$
317,204

 
$
1,281,432

 
$
(232,531
)
 
$
1,366,720



 
 
Quarter Ended April 29, 2018
 
 
Exchangeable Stock
 
Special Voting Stock
 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Retained Earnings
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Total
 
 
Shares
 
Shares
 
Par Value
 
Shares
 
Par Value
 
 
 
 
Balance at January 28, 2018
 
9,781

 
9,781

 
$

 
125,650

 
$
628

 
$
284,253

 
$
1,455,002

 
$
(142,923
)
 
$
1,596,960

Net income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
75,153

 
 
 
75,153

Foreign currency translation adjustment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(42,972
)
 
(42,972
)
Common stock issued upon exchange of exchangeable shares
 
(5
)
 
(5
)
 

 
5

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

Stock-based compensation expense
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5,193

 
 
 
 
 
5,193

Common stock issued upon settlement of stock-based compensation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
333

 
2

 
8,406

 
 
 
 
 
8,408

Shares withheld related to net share settlement of stock-based compensation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(77
)
 

 
(6,500
)
 
 
 
 
 
(6,500
)
Repurchase of common stock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
(8
)
 
 
 
(8
)
Balance at April 29, 2018
 
9,776

 
9,776

 
$

 
125,911

 
$
630

 
$
291,352

 
$
1,530,147

 
$
(185,895
)
 
$
1,636,234


See accompanying notes to the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements

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lululemon athletica inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited; Amounts in thousands)
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
$
96,603

 
$
75,153

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
 
32,823

 
26,773

Stock-based compensation expense
 
10,157

 
5,193

Settlement of derivatives not designated in a hedging relationship
 
(4,983
)
 
(211
)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Inventories
 
(42,856
)
 
(50,770
)
Prepaid and receivable income taxes
 
(32,816
)
 
2,021

Other prepaid expenses and other current and non-current assets
 
(16,164
)
 
1,133

Accounts payable
 
(5,420
)
 
(7,676
)
Accrued inventory liabilities
 
(6,894
)
 
7,517

Accrued compensation and related expenses
 
(32,498
)
 
(14,157
)
Current income taxes payable
 
(56,524
)
 
4,293

Unredeemed gift card liability
 
(13,641
)
 
(12,299
)
Non-current income taxes payable
 
(4,009
)
 
(4,190
)
Right-of-use lease assets and current and non-current lease liabilities
 
8,185

 

Other current and non-current liabilities
 
5,234

 
3,057

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
 
(62,803
)
 
35,837

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
 
Purchase of property and equipment
 
(68,434
)
 
(34,314
)
Settlement of net investment hedges
 
4,657

 

Other investing activities
 
(131
)
 

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(63,908
)
 
(34,314
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from settlement of stock-based compensation
 
12,177

 
8,408

Taxes paid related to net share settlement of stock-based compensation
 
(18,939
)
 
(6,500
)
Repurchase of common stock
 
(163,530
)
 
(8
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
 
(170,292
)
 
1,900

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
 
(8,076
)
 
(27,353
)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents
 
(305,079
)
 
(23,930
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
 
$
881,320

 
$
990,501

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
 
$
576,241

 
$
966,571

See accompanying notes to the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements


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lululemon athletica inc.
INDEX FOR NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED INTERIM CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL
STATEMENTS
Note 1
Note 2
Note 3
Note 4
Note 5
Note 6
Note 7
Note 8
Note 9
Note 10
Note 11


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lululemon athletica inc.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED INTERIM CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL
STATEMENTS
NOTE 1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Nature of operations
lululemon athletica inc., a Delaware corporation ("lululemon" and, together with its subsidiaries unless the context otherwise requires, the "Company") is engaged in the design, distribution, and retail of healthy lifestyle inspired athletic apparel. The Company primarily conducts its business through company-operated stores and direct to consumer through e-commerce. It also generates net revenue from outlets, sales from temporary locations, sales to wholesale accounts, showrooms, license and supply arrangements, and warehouse sales. The Company operates stores in the United States, Canada, Australia, China, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Singapore, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. There were 455 and 440 company-operated stores in operation as of May 5, 2019 and February 3, 2019, respectively.
Basis of presentation
The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements as of May 5, 2019 and for the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018 are presented in United States dollars and have been prepared by the Company under the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The financial information is presented in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") for interim financial information and, accordingly, does not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The financial information as of February 3, 2019 is derived from the Company's audited consolidated financial statements and related notes for the fiscal year ended February 3, 2019, which are included in Item 8 in the Company's fiscal 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 27, 2019. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company's consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 8 in the Company's fiscal 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as disclosed in Note 2 of these unaudited interim consolidated financial statements pertaining to the adoption of new accounting pronouncements, there have been no significant changes to the Company's significant accounting policies as described in the Company's fiscal 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Company's fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to January 31 of the following year, typically resulting in a 52-week year, but occasionally giving rise to an additional week, resulting in a 53-week year. Fiscal 2019 will end on February 2, 2020 and will be a 52-week year. Fiscal 2018 was a 53-week year.
In accordance with the Disclosure Modernization and Simplification final rule issued by the SEC and effective for the Company beginning with the quarter ended May 5, 2019, a reconciliation of the changes of stockholders' equity is presented for all periods for which the results of operations are presented.
The Company's business is affected by the pattern of seasonality common to most retail apparel businesses. Historically, the Company has recognized a significant portion of its operating profit in the fourth fiscal quarter of each year as a result of increased net revenue during the holiday season.
Certain comparative figures have been reclassified to conform to the financial presentation adopted for the current year.
NOTE 2. RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASC 842, Leases ("ASC 842") to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. Under the new guidance, lessees are required to recognize a lease liability, which represents the discounted obligation to make future minimum lease payments, and a corresponding right-of-use asset on the balance sheet. The Company adopted ASC 842 on February 4, 2019 using the modified retrospective approach and has elected not to restate comparative periods.

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The Company has chosen to apply the transition package of three practical expedients which allow companies not to reassess whether agreements contain leases, the classification of leases, and the capitalization of initial direct costs. The Company did not elect the practical expedient to use hindsight when determining the lease term.
The primary financial statement impact upon adoption was the recognition, on a discounted basis, of the Company's minimum payments under noncancelable operating leases as right-of-use assets and obligations on the consolidated balance sheets. As of February 4, 2019, right-of-use assets and lease liabilities were $619.6 million and $651.1 million, respectively. Pre-existing lease balances of $34.8 million from current assets, $9.3 million from non-current assets, and $75.5 million from non-current liabilities were reclassified to right-of-use assets and lease liabilities as part of the adoption of the new standard. There was no cumulative earnings effect adjustment on transition.
In August 2017, the FASB amended ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, to more closely align hedge accounting with companies' risk management strategies, simplify the application of hedge accounting, and increase transparency as to the scope and results of hedging programs. It makes more financial and non-financial hedging strategies eligible for hedge accounting. It also amends the presentation and disclosure requirements and changes how companies assess effectiveness. The Company adopted this guidance in the first quarter of fiscal 2019, and it did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB clarified ASC 350-40, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software, for certain aspects of accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract. Under the update, an entity expenses costs incurred in the preliminary-project and post-implementation-operation stages. An entity also capitalizes certain costs incurred during the application-development stage, as well as certain costs related to enhancements. The ASU does not change the accounting for the service component of a cloud computing arrangement. This standard is effective beginning in the first quarter of 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this guidance in the first quarter of fiscal 2019, and it did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Accounting policies as a result of the adoption of ASC 842
Operating leases
At lease commencement, which is generally when the Company takes possession of the asset, the Company records a lease liability and corresponding right-of-use asset. Lease liabilities represent the present value of minimum lease payments over the expected lease term, which includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain those options will be exercised. The present value of the lease liability is determined using the Company’s incremental collateralized borrowing rate at the lease commencement.
Minimum lease payments include base rent, fixed escalation of rental payments, and rental payments that are adjusted periodically depending on a rate or index. In determining minimum lease payments, the Company does not separate non-lease components for real estate leases. Non-lease components are generally services that the lessor performs for the Company associated with the leased asset, such as common area maintenance.
Right-of-use assets represent the right to control the use of the leased asset during the lease and are initially recognized in an amount equal to the lease liability. In addition, prepaid rent, initial direct costs, and adjustments for lease incentives are components of the right-of-use asset. Over the lease term the lease expense is amortized on a straight-line basis beginning on the lease commencement date. Right-of-use assets are assessed for impairment as part of the impairment of long-lived assets, which is performed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable.
Variable lease payments, including contingent rental payments based on sales volume, are recognized when the achievement of the specific target is probable. A right-of-use asset and lease liability are not recognized for leases with an initial term of 12 months or less, and the lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
NOTE 3. CREDIT FACILITY
On June 6, 2018, the Company entered into Amendment No. 1 to its credit agreement. This amends the credit agreement to provide for (i) an increase in the aggregate commitments under the unsecured five-year revolving credit facility to $400.0 million, with an increase of the sub-limits for the issuance of letters of credit and extensions of swing line loans to $50.0 million for each, (ii) an increase in the option, subject to certain conditions as set forth in the credit agreement, to request increases in commitments under the revolving facility from $400.0 million to $600.0 million, and (iii) an extension in the maturity of the revolving facility from December 15, 2021 to June 6, 2023.

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In addition, this amendment decreases the applicable margins for LIBOR loans from 1.00%-1.75% to 1.00%-1.50% and for alternate base rate loans from 0.00%-0.75% to 0.00%-0.50%, reduces the commitment fee on average daily unused amounts under the revolving facility from 0.125%-0.200% to 0.10%-0.20%, and reduces fees for unused letters of credit from 1.00%-1.75% to 1.00%-1.50%.
The Company had no borrowings outstanding under this credit facility as of May 5, 2019 and February 3, 2019. As of May 5, 2019, the Company had letters of credit of $1.7 million outstanding.
NOTE 4. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION AND BENEFIT PLANS
Stock-based compensation plans
The Company's eligible employees participate in various stock-based compensation plans, which are provided by the Company directly.
Stock-based compensation expense charged to income for the plans was $11.0 million and $5.2 million for the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018, respectively. Total unrecognized compensation cost for all stock-based compensation plans was $83.7 million at May 5, 2019, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.5 years.
A summary of the balances of the Company's stock-based compensation plans as of May 5, 2019, and changes during the first quarter then ended, is presented below:
 
 
Stock Options
 
Performance-Based Restricted Stock Units
 
Restricted Shares
 
Restricted Stock Units
 
Restricted Stock Units
(Liability Accounting)
 
 
Number
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price
 
Number
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
 
Number
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
 
Number
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
 
Number
 
Weighted-Average Fair Value
 
 
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Balance at February 3, 2019
 
870

 
$
73.34

 
280

 
$
78.01

 
6

 
$
124.19

 
440

 
$
73.73

 
44

 
$
146.12

Granted
 
311

 
167.54

 
92

 
141.96

 

 

 
112

 
167.54

 

 

Exercised/released
 
200

 
60.80

 
97

 
72.04

 

 

 
167

 
69.90

 

 

Forfeited/expired
 
20

 
78.23

 
5

 
77.80

 

 

 
10

 
87.27

 

 

Balance at May 5, 2019
 
961

 
$
106.35

 
270

 
$
101.99

 
6

 
$
124.19

 
375

 
$
103.02

 
44

 
$
178.64

Exercisable at May 5, 2019
 
146

 
$
63.89

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The grant date fair value of each stock option granted is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes model. The assumptions used to calculate the fair value of the options granted are evaluated and revised, as necessary, to reflect market conditions and the Company's historical experience. The expected term of the options is based upon the historical experience of similar awards, giving consideration to expectations of future employee behavior. Expected volatility is based upon the historical volatility of the Company's common stock for the period corresponding with the expected term of the options. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve for the period corresponding with the expected term of the options. The following are weighted averages of the assumptions that were used in calculating the fair value of stock options granted during the first quarter of fiscal 2019:
 
 
Quarter Ended
 May 5, 2019
Expected term
 
3.75 years

Expected volatility
 
38.43
%
Risk-free interest rate
 
2.19
%
Dividend yield
 
%
The Company's performance-based restricted stock units are awarded to eligible employees and entitle the grantee to receive a maximum of two shares of common stock per performance-based restricted stock unit if the Company achieves specified performance goals and the grantee remains employed during the vesting period. The fair value of performance-based

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restricted stock units is based on the closing price of the Company's common stock on the award date. Expense for performance-based restricted stock units is recognized when it is probable that the performance goal will be achieved.
The grant date fair value of the restricted shares and restricted stock units is based on the closing price of the Company's common stock on the award date. Restricted stock units that are settled in cash or common stock at the election of the employee are remeasured to fair value at the end of each reporting period until settlement. This fair value is based on the closing price of the Company's common stock on the last business day before each period end.
Employee share purchase plan
The Company's board of directors and stockholders approved the Company's Employee Share Purchase Plan ("ESPP") in September 2007. Contributions are made by eligible employees, subject to certain limits defined in the ESPP, and the Company matches one-third of the contribution. The maximum number of shares authorized to be purchased under the ESPP is 6.0 million shares. All shares purchased under the ESPP are purchased in the open market. During the quarter ended May 5, 2019, there were 21.7 thousand shares purchased.
Defined contribution pension plans
The Company offers defined contribution pension plans to its eligible employees. Participating employees may elect to defer and contribute a portion of their eligible compensation to a plan up to limits stated in the plan documents, not to exceed the dollar amounts set by applicable laws. The Company matches 50% to 75% of the contribution depending on the participant's length of service, and the contribution is subject to a two year vesting period. The Company's net expense for the defined contribution plans was $2.3 million and $1.7 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018, respectively.
NOTE 5. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Fair value measurements are made using a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value:
Level 1 - defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets;
Level 2 - defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and
Level 3 - defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis
The fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety by reference to its lowest level of significant input. As of May 5, 2019 and February 3, 2019, the Company held certain assets and liabilities that are required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Balance Sheet Classification
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
Money market funds
 
$
264,025

 
$
264,025

 
$

 
$

 
Cash and cash equivalents
Term deposits
 
40,842

 

 
40,842

 

 
Cash and cash equivalents
Net forward currency contract assets
 
1,065

 

 
1,065

 

 
Other prepaid expenses and other current assets
Net forward currency contract liabilities
 
1,223

 

 
1,223

 

 
Other current liabilities

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February 3, 2019
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Balance Sheet Classification
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
Money market funds
 
$
471,888

 
$
471,888

 
$

 
$

 
Cash and cash equivalents
Treasury bills
 
99,958

 
99,958

 

 

 
Cash and cash equivalents
Term deposits
 
63,522

 

 
63,522

 

 
Cash and cash equivalents
Net forward currency contract assets
 
516

 

 
516

 

 
Other prepaid expenses and other current assets
Net forward currency contract liabilities
 
1,042

 

 
1,042

 

 
Other current liabilities
The Company records accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities at cost. The carrying values of these instruments approximate their fair value due to their short-term maturities.
The Company has short-term, highly liquid investments classified as cash equivalents, which are invested in money market funds, Treasury bills, and term deposits. The Company records cash equivalents at their original purchase prices plus interest that has accrued at the stated rate.
The fair values of the forward currency contract assets and liabilities are determined using observable Level 2 inputs, including foreign currency spot exchange rates, forward pricing curves, and interest rates. The fair values consider the credit risk of the Company and its counterparties. They are presented at their gross fair values. However, the Company's Master International Swap Dealers Association, Inc., Agreements and other similar arrangements allow net settlements under certain conditions.
NOTE 6. DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Foreign exchange risk
The Company is exposed to risks associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates and uses derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to certain of these foreign currency exchange rate risks. The Company does not enter into derivative contracts for speculative or trading purposes.
The Company currently hedges against changes in the Canadian dollar to U.S. dollar exchange rate and changes in the Chinese Yuan to U.S. dollar exchange rate using forward currency contracts.
Net investment hedges
The Company is exposed to foreign exchange gains and losses which arise on translation of its foreign subsidiaries' balance sheets into U.S. dollars. These gains and losses are recorded as a foreign currency translation adjustment in accumulated other comprehensive income or loss within stockholders' equity.
The Company holds a significant portion of its assets in Canada and enters into forward currency contracts designed to hedge a portion of the foreign currency exposure that arises on translation of a Canadian subsidiary into U.S. dollars. These forward currency contracts are designated as net investment hedges. The effective portions of the hedges are reported in accumulated other comprehensive income or loss and will subsequently be reclassified to net earnings in the period in which the hedged investment is either sold or substantially liquidated. Hedge effectiveness is measured using a method based on changes in forward exchange rates. The Company recorded no ineffectiveness from net investment hedges during the first quarter of fiscal 2019.
The Company classifies the cash flows at settlement of its net investment hedges within investing activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows.
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments
The Company is exposed to gains and losses arising from changes in foreign exchange rates associated with transactions which are undertaken by its subsidiaries in currencies other than their functional currency. Such transactions include intercompany transactions and inventory purchases. These transactions result in the recognition of certain foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities which are remeasured to the quarter-end or settlement date exchange rate. The resulting foreign currency gains and losses are recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses.

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During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, the Company entered into certain forward currency contracts designed to economically hedge the foreign exchange revaluation gains and losses that are recognized by its Canadian and Chinese subsidiaries on U.S. dollar denominated monetary assets and liabilities. The Company has not applied hedge accounting to these instruments and the change in fair value of these derivatives is recorded within selling, general and administrative expenses.
The Company classifies the cash flows at settlement of its forward currency contracts which are not designated in hedging relationships within operating activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows.
Quantitative disclosures about derivative financial instruments
The Company presents its derivative assets and derivative liabilities at their gross fair values within other prepaid expenses and other current assets and other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. However, the Company's Master International Swap Dealers Association, Inc., Agreements and other similar arrangements allow net settlements under certain conditions. As of May 5, 2019, there were derivative assets of $1.1 million and derivative liabilities of $1.2 million subject to enforceable netting arrangements.
The notional amounts and fair values of forward currency contracts were as follows:
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
February 3, 2019
 
 
Gross Notional
 
Assets
 
Liabilities
 
Gross Notional
 
Assets
 
Liabilities
 
 
(In thousands)
Derivatives designated as net investment hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forward currency contracts
 
$
118,000

 
$
1,065

 
$

 
$
328,000

 
$

 
$
1,042

Derivatives not designated in a hedging relationship:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forward currency contracts
 
116,000

 

 
1,223

 
309,000

 
516

 

Net derivatives recognized on consolidated balance sheets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forward currency contracts
 
 
 
$
1,065

 
$
1,223

 
 
 
$
516

 
$
1,042

The forward currency contracts designated as net investment hedges outstanding as of May 5, 2019 mature on different dates between June 2019 and October 2019.
The forward currency contracts not designated in a hedging relationship outstanding as of May 5, 2019 mature on different dates between June 2019 and September 2019.
The pre-tax gains and losses on foreign exchange forward contracts recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income were as follows:
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019

April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
Gains (losses) recognized in foreign currency translation adjustment:
 
 
 
 
Derivatives designated as net investment hedges
 
$
6,764

 
$
10,818

No gains or losses have been reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income into net income for derivative financial instruments in a net investment hedging relationship, as the Company has not sold or liquidated (or substantially liquidated) its hedged subsidiary.

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The pre-tax net foreign exchange and derivative gains and losses recorded in the consolidated statement of operations were as follows:
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
Gains (losses) recognized in selling, general and administrative expenses:
 
 
 
 
Foreign exchange gains
 
$
5,697

 
$
9,645

Derivatives not designated in a hedging relationship
 
(6,631
)
 
(10,048
)
Net foreign exchange and derivative (losses) gains
 
$
(934
)
 
$
(403
)
Credit risk
The Company is exposed to credit-related losses in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties to the forward currency contracts. The credit risk amount is the Company's unrealized gains on its derivative instruments, based on foreign currency rates at the time of nonperformance.
The Company's forward currency contracts are entered into with large, reputable financial institutions that are monitored by the Company for counterparty risk.
The Company's derivative contracts contain certain credit risk-related contingent features. Under certain circumstances, including an event of default, bankruptcy, termination, and cross default under the Company's revolving credit facility, the Company may be required to make immediate payment for outstanding liabilities under its derivative contracts.
NOTE 7. LEASES
The Company has obligations under operating leases for its store and other retail locations, distribution centers, offices, and equipment. As of May 5, 2019, the lease terms of the various leases range from two to 15 years. The majority of the Company's leases include renewal options at the sole discretion of the Company. In general, it is not reasonably certain that lease renewals will be exercised at lease commencement and therefore lease renewals are not included in the lease term.
The following table details the Company's net lease expense. Certain of the Company's leases include rent escalation clauses, rent holidays, and leasehold rental incentives. The majority of the Company's leases for store premises also include contingent rental payments based on sales volume. The variable lease expenses disclosed below include contingent rent payments and other non-fixed lease related costs, including common area maintenance, property taxes, and landlord's insurance.


Quarter Ended


May 5, 2019


(In thousands)
Net lease expense:


Operating lease expense

$
42,245

Short-term lease expense

1,909

Variable lease expense

16,185



$
60,339


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The following table presents future minimum lease payments and the impact of discounting.
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
 
(In thousands)
Final three quarters of fiscal 2019
 
$
111,193

2020
 
141,010

2021
 
128,985

2022
 
105,598

2023
 
79,300

After 2024
 
184,034

Future minimum lease payments
 
$
750,120

Impact of discounting
 
(85,182
)
Present value of lease liabilities
 
$
664,938

 
 
 
Balance sheet classification:
 
 
Current lease liabilities
 
$
127,180

Non-current lease liabilities
 
537,758

 
 
$
664,938

The weighted-average remaining lease term and weighted-average discount rate were as follows:

 
May 5, 2019
Weighted-average remaining lease term
 
6.05 years

Weighted-average discount rate
 
3.84
%
The following table presents supplemental cash flow information related to our leases.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
 
(In thousands)
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities
 
$
41,708

Leased assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities
 
38,734

Disclosures related to periods prior to adoption of ASC 842
Total rent expense for the first quarter of fiscal 2018 was $45.3 million under operating lease agreements, consisting of minimum rent expense of $37.2 million, common area expenses of $5.2 million, and rent contingent on sales of $2.9 million. In addition, the Company had property taxes for leased locations of $4.2 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
The table below summarizes the Company's contractual arrangements as of February 3, 2019, and the timing and effect that such commitments are expected to have on its liquidity and cash flows in future periods. Minimum annual basic rent payments excluding other executory operating costs, pursuant to lease agreements are approximately as laid out in the table below. These amounts include commitments in respect of company-operated stores that have not yet opened but for which lease agreements have been executed.
 
 
Payments Due by Fiscal Year
 
 
Total
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
 
 
(In thousands)
Operating leases (minimum rent)
 
$
783,913

 
$
169,822

 
$
147,541

 
$
123,032

 
$
99,471

 
$
73,213

 
$
170,834


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NOTE 8. EARNINGS PER SHARE
The details of the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share are as follows:
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Net income
 
$
96,603

 
$
75,153

Basic weighted-average number of shares outstanding
 
130,694

 
135,502

Assumed conversion of dilutive stock options and awards
 
643

 
429

Diluted weighted-average number of shares outstanding
 
131,337

 
135,931

Basic earnings per share
 
$
0.74

 
$
0.55

Diluted earnings per share
 
$
0.74

 
$
0.55

The Company's calculation of weighted-average shares includes the common stock of the Company as well as the exchangeable shares. Exchangeable shares are the equivalent of common shares in all material respects. All classes of stock have, in effect, the same rights and share equally in undistributed net income. For the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018, 0.1 million and 0.1 million stock options and awards, respectively, were anti-dilutive to earnings per share and therefore have been excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share.
On November 29, 2017, the Company's board of directors approved a stock repurchase program for up to $200.0 million and on June 6, 2018, the board of directors approved an increase to this stock repurchase program, authorizing the repurchase of up to a total of $600.0 million of the Company's common shares. On January 31, 2019, the Company's board of directors approved an additional stock repurchase program for up to $500.0 million of the Company's common shares on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. Common shares repurchased on the open market are at prevailing market prices, including under plans complying with the provisions of Rule 10b5-1 and Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The timing and actual number of common shares to be repurchased will depend upon market conditions, eligibility to trade, and other factors, in accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission requirements, and the repurchase program is expected to be completed by January 2021. As of May 5, 2019, the remaining aggregate value of shares available to be repurchased under these programs was $337.2 million.
During the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018, 1.0 million and 100 shares, respectively, were repurchased under the program at a total cost of $163.5 million and $7.5 thousand, respectively.
Subsequent to May 5, 2019, and up to June 7, 2019, 9.6 thousand shares were repurchased at a total cost of $1.6 million.
NOTE 9. SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION
A summary of certain consolidated balance sheet accounts is as follows:
 
 
May 5,
2019
 
February 3,
2019
 
 
(In thousands)
Inventories:
 
 
 
 
Finished goods
 
$
461,208

 
$
420,931

Provision to reduce inventories to net realizable value
 
(18,202
)
 
(16,089
)
 
 
$
443,006

 
$
404,842


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May 5,
2019
 
February 3,
2019
 
 
(In thousands)
Property and equipment, net:
 
 
 
 
Land
 
$
76,895

 
$
78,636

Buildings
 
32,071

 
38,030

Leasehold improvements
 
375,228

 
362,571

Furniture and fixtures
 
106,076

 
103,733

Computer hardware
 
75,259

 
69,542

Computer software
 
248,613

 
230,689

Equipment and vehicles
 
19,016

 
15,009

Work in progress
 
80,643

 
74,271

Property and equipment, gross
 
1,013,801

 
972,481

Accumulated depreciation
 
(431,063
)
 
(405,244
)
 
 
$
582,738

 
$
567,237

Other non-current assets:
 
 
 
 
Security deposits
 
$
15,459

 
$
15,793

Deferred lease assets
 

 
9,286

Other
 
15,859

 
12,325

 
 
$
31,318

 
$
37,404

Other current liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Accrued duty, freight, and other operating expenses
 
$
57,074

 
$
49,945

Sales tax collected
 
15,751

 
16,091

Sales return allowances
 
10,337

 
11,318

Deferred revenue
 
8,434

 
8,045

Accrued rent
 
6,631

 
7,331

Accrued capital expenditures
 
5,582

 
11,295

Forward currency contract liabilities
 
1,223

 
1,042

Lease termination liabilities
 
626

 
2,293

Other
 
3,068

 
5,338

 
 
$
108,726

 
$
112,698

Other non-current liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Tenant inducements
 
$

 
$
42,138

Deferred lease liabilities
 

 
33,406

Other
 
3,676

 
6,367

 
 
$
3,676

 
$
81,911


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NOTE 10. SEGMENTED INFORMATION AND DISAGGREGATED NET REVENUE
The Company applies ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting ("ASC 280"), in determining reportable segments for its financial statement disclosure. The Company reports segments based on the financial information it uses in managing its business. The Company's reportable segments are comprised of company-operated stores and direct to consumer. Direct to consumer represents sales from the Company's e-commerce websites and mobile apps. Outlets, temporary locations, sales to wholesale accounts, showrooms, license and supply arrangements, and warehouse sale net revenue have been combined into other.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
Company-operated stores
 
$
506,422

 
$
433,131

Direct to consumer
 
209,844

 
157,843

Other
 
66,049

 
58,732

 
 
$
782,315

 
$
649,706

Segmented income from operations:
 
 
 
 
Company-operated stores
 
$
120,907

 
$
99,287

Direct to consumer
 
78,675

 
62,267

Other
 
12,633

 
11,223

 
 
212,215

 
172,777

General corporate expense
 
83,403

 
68,472

Income from operations
 
128,812

 
104,305

Other income (expense), net
 
2,379

 
2,918

Income before income tax expense
 
$
131,191

 
$
107,223

 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures:
 
 
 
 
Company-operated stores
 
$
38,710

 
$
19,236

Direct to consumer
 
6,226

 
721

Corporate and other
 
23,498

 
14,357

 
 
$
68,434

 
$
34,314

Depreciation and amortization:
 
 
 
 
Company-operated stores
 
$
21,060

 
$
17,082

Direct to consumer
 
2,462

 
2,599

Corporate and other
 
9,301

 
7,092

 
 
$
32,823

 
$
26,773

The following table disaggregates the Company's net revenue by geographic area. The economic conditions in these areas could affect the amount and timing of the Company's net revenue and cash flows.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
United States
 
$
553,647

 
$
462,270

Canada
 
123,645

 
112,149

Outside of North America
 
105,023

 
75,287

 
 
$
782,315

 
$
649,706

NOTE 11. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AND OTHER CONTINGENCIES
In addition to the legal proceedings described below, the Company is, from time to time, involved in routine legal matters, and audits and inspections by governmental agencies and other third parties which are incidental to the conduct of its

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business. This includes legal matters such as initiation and defense of proceedings to protect intellectual property rights, personal injury claims, product liability claims, employment claims, and similar matters. The Company believes the ultimate resolution of any such legal proceedings, audits, and inspections will not have a material adverse effect on its consolidated balance sheets, results of operations or cash flows.
On October 9, 2015, certain current and former hourly employees of the Company filed a class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of New York entitled Rebecca Gathmann-Landini et al v. lululemon USA inc. On December 2, 2015, the case was moved to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The lawsuit alleges that the Company violated various New York labor codes by failing to pay all earned wages, including overtime compensation. The plaintiffs are seeking an unspecified amount of damages. The Company intends to vigorously defend this matter.
On November 21, 2018, plaintiff David Shabbouei filed in the Delaware Court of Chancery a derivative lawsuit on behalf of the Company against certain of the Company's current and former directors and officers, captioned David Shabbouei v. Laurent Potdevin, et al., 2018-0847-JRS. Plaintiff claims that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to the Company by allegedly failing to address alleged sexual harassment, gender discrimination, and related conduct at the Company. Plaintiff also claims that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to the Company and wasted corporate assets with respect to the separation agreement entered into by the Company and Laurent Potdevin in connection with his departure from the Company in February 2018. Plaintiff also further brings an unjust enrichment claim against Mr. Potdevin with respect to the separation agreement. Plaintiff seeks unspecified money damages for the Company for the defendants' alleged breaches of fiduciary duty, waste and unjust enrichment, disgorgement of all profits, benefits and other compensation Mr. Potdevin received as a result of defendants' alleged conduct for the Company, an order directing the Company to implement corporate governance and internal procedures, and an award of plaintiff's attorneys' fees, costs and expenses. The defendants and lululemon have moved to dismiss the action.
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Some of the statements contained in this Form 10-Q and any documents incorporated herein by reference constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included or incorporated in this Form 10-Q are forward-looking statements, particularly statements which relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts, such as statements regarding our future financial condition or results of operations, our prospects and strategies for future growth, the development and introduction of new products, and the implementation of our marketing and branding strategies. In many cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as "may," "will," "should," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "intends," "predicts," "potential" or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.
The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-Q and any documents incorporated herein by reference reflect our current views about future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and changes in circumstances that may cause events or our actual activities or results to differ significantly from those expressed in any forward-looking statement. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future events, results, actions, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. A number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, those factors described in "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this report.
The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-Q reflect our views and assumptions only as of the date of this Form 10-Q and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this Form 10-Q. Except as required by applicable securities law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
This information should be read in conjunction with the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements and the notes included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes, and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contained in our fiscal 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 27, 2019.
We disclose material non-public information through one or more of the following channels: our investor relations website (http://investor.lululemon.com/), the social media channels identified on our investor relations website, press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls, and webcasts.

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Overview
lululemon athletica inc. is principally a designer, distributor, and retailer of healthy lifestyle inspired athletic apparel and accessories. We have a vision to be the experiential brand that ignites a community of people through sweat, grow, and connect, which we call "living the sweatlife." Since our inception, we have fostered a distinctive corporate culture; we promote a set of core values in our business which include taking personal responsibility, nurturing entrepreneurial spirit, acting with honesty and courage, valuing connection, and choosing to have fun. These core values attract passionate and motivated employees who are driven to achieve personal and professional goals, and share our purpose "to elevate the world by unleashing the full potential within every one of us."
Our healthy lifestyle inspired athletic apparel and accessories are marketed under the lululemon and ivivva brand names. We offer a comprehensive line of apparel and accessories for women, men, and female youth. Our apparel assortment includes items such as pants, shorts, tops, and jackets designed for a healthy lifestyle including athletic activities such as yoga, running, training, and most other sweaty pursuits. We also offer fitness-related accessories, including items such as bags, socks, underwear, yoga mats and equipment, and water bottles.
Financial Highlights
For the first quarter of fiscal 2019, compared to the first quarter of fiscal 2018:
Net revenue increased 20% to $782.3 million. On a constant dollar basis, net revenue increased 22%.
Based on a shifted calendar, total comparable sales, which includes comparable store sales and direct to consumer, increased 14%. On a constant dollar basis, total comparable sales increased 16%.
Comparable store sales increased 6%, or increased 8% on a constant dollar basis.
Direct to consumer net revenue increased 33%, or increased 35% on a constant dollar basis.
Gross profit increased 22% to $421.7 million.
Gross margin increased 80 basis points to 53.9%.
Income from operations increased 23% to $128.8 million.
Operating margin increased 40 basis points to 16.5%.
Income tax expense increased 8% to $34.6 million. Our effective tax rate for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 was 26.4% compared to 29.9% for the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
Diluted earnings per share were $0.74 compared to $0.55 in the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
Due to the 53rd week in fiscal 2018, comparable sales are calculated on a one week shifted basis such that the 13 weeks ended May 5, 2019 is compared to the 13 weeks ended May 6, 2018, rather than April 29, 2018.
Refer to the non-GAAP reconciliation tables contained in the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section of this Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for reconciliations between constant dollar changes in net revenue, total comparable sales, comparable store sales, and direct to consumer net revenue, and the most directly comparable measures calculated in accordance with GAAP.

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Results of Operations
First Quarter Results
The following table summarizes key components of our results of operations for the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018. The percentages are presented as a percentage of net revenue.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018

May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
 
(Percentages)
Net revenue
 
$
782,315

 
$
649,706

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Cost of goods sold
 
360,595

 
304,973

 
46.1

 
46.9

Gross profit
 
421,720

 
344,733

 
53.9

 
53.1

Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
292,908

 
240,428

 
37.4

 
37.0

Income from operations
 
128,812

 
104,305

 
16.5

 
16.1

Other income (expense), net
 
2,379

 
2,918

 
0.3

 
0.4

Income before income tax expense
 
131,191

 
107,223

 
16.8

 
16.5

Income tax expense
 
34,588

 
32,070

 
4.4

 
4.9

Net income
 
$
96,603

 
$
75,153

 
12.3
%
 
11.6
%
Net Revenue
Net revenue increased $132.6 million, or 20%, to $782.3 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $649.7 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. On a constant dollar basis, assuming the average exchange rates for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 remained constant with the average exchange rates for the first quarter of fiscal 2018, net revenue increased $145.1 million, or 22%.
The increase in net revenue was primarily due to increased company-operated store net revenue, including from new company-operated stores as well as an increase in comparable store sales, increased direct to consumer net revenue, and an increase in net revenue from our other retail locations.
Based on a shifted calendar, total comparable sales, which includes comparable store sales and direct to consumer, increased 14% in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 compared to the first quarter of fiscal 2018. Total comparable sales increased 16% on a constant dollar basis.
Net revenue on a segment basis for the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018 is summarized below. The percentages are presented as a percentage of total net revenue.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
 
(Percentages)
Company-operated stores
 
$
506,422

 
$
433,131

 
64.7
%
 
66.7
%
Direct to consumer
 
209,844

 
157,843

 
26.8

 
24.3

Other
 
66,049

 
58,732

 
8.4

 
9.0

Net revenue
 
$
782,315

 
$
649,706

 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
Company-Operated Stores. Net revenue from our company-operated stores segment increased $73.3 million, or 17%, to $506.4 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $433.1 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The following contributed to the increase in net revenue from our company-operated stores segment:
Net revenue from company-operated stores we opened or significantly expanded subsequent to April 29, 2018 contributed $44.3 million to the increase. We opened 44 net new lululemon branded company-operated stores since the first quarter of fiscal 2018, including 21 stores in North America, 13 stores in Asia, seven stores in Europe, and three stores in Australia/New Zealand.
Based on a shifted calendar, a comparable store sales increase of 6% in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 compared to the first quarter of fiscal 2018. Comparable store sales increased 8% on a constant dollar basis. The increase in

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comparable store sales was primarily a result of increased store traffic. This was partially offset by a decrease in dollar value per transaction.
Direct to Consumer. Net revenue from our direct to consumer segment increased $52.0 million to $209.8 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $157.8 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. Based on a shifted calendar, direct to consumer net revenue increased 33%, or increased 35% on a constant dollar basis. This was primarily a result of increased website traffic, partially offset by a decrease in dollar value per transaction and lower conversion rates.
Other. Net revenue from our other segment increased $7.3 million, or 12%, to $66.0 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $58.7 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. This increase was primarily the result of an increased number of temporary locations, including seasonal stores, open during the first quarter of fiscal 2019 compared to the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
Gross Profit
Gross profit increased $77.0 million, or 22%, to $421.7 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $344.7 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
Gross profit as a percentage of net revenue, or gross margin, increased 80 basis points to 53.9% in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from 53.1% in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase in gross margin was primarily the result of an increase in product margin of 190 basis points which was primarily due to lower product costs, a favorable mix of higher margin product, and lower markdowns.
This was partially offset by an increase in costs as a percentage of revenue related to our distribution centers and our product departments of 60 basis points, an unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rates of 30 basis points, and an increase in occupancy and depreciation costs as a percentage of revenue of 20 basis points.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $52.5 million, or 22%, to $292.9 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $240.4 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase in selling, general and administrative expenses was primarily due to:
an increase in costs related to our operating channels of $33.1 million, comprised of:
an increase in employee costs of $17.0 million primarily from a growth in labor hours and benefits, mainly associated with new company-operated stores and other new operating locations, and due to higher retail bonus expenses;
an increase in variable costs of $7.8 million primarily due to an increase in distribution costs, credit card fees, and packaging costs as a result of increased net revenue; and
an increase in other costs of $8.2 million primarily due to an increase in digital marketing expenses, repairs and maintenance, security, and other costs associated with our operating locations;
an increase in head office costs of $18.9 million, comprised of:
an increase in employee costs of $11.9 million primarily due to additional employees to support the growth in our business, and due to increased incentive and stock-based compensation expense; and
an increase in other costs of $6.9 million primarily due to increases in professional fees, information technology costs, depreciation, and other head office costs; and
an increase in net foreign exchange and derivative revaluation losses of $0.5 million.
As a percentage of net revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses increased 40 basis points, to 37.4% in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from 37.0% in the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
Income from Operations
Income from operations increased $24.5 million, or 23%, to $128.8 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $104.3 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. Operating margin increased 40 basis points to 16.5% compared to 16.1% in the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
On a segment basis, we determine income from operations without taking into account our general corporate expenses.

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Segmented income from operations for the quarters ended May 5, 2019 and April 29, 2018 is summarized below. The percentages are presented as a percentage of net revenue of the respective operating segments.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
 
(Percentage of segment revenue)
Segmented income from operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Company-operated stores
 
$
120,907

 
$
99,287

 
23.9
%
 
22.9
%
Direct to consumer
 
78,675

 
62,267

 
37.5

 
39.4

Other
 
12,633

 
11,223

 
19.1

 
19.1

 
 
212,215

 
172,777

 
 
 
 
General corporate expense
 
83,403

 
68,472

 
 
 
 
Income from operations
 
$
128,812

 
$
104,305

 
 
 
 
Company-Operated Stores. Income from operations from our company-operated stores segment increased $21.6 million, or 22%, to $120.9 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $99.3 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily the result of increased gross profit of $41.4 million which was primarily due to increased net revenue and higher gross margin. This was partially offset by an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses, primarily due to an increase in employee costs, increased store operating expenses including higher distribution costs, credit card fees, and packaging costs as a result of higher net revenue, as well as increases in repairs and maintenance costs and security costs. Income from operations as a percentage of company-operated stores net revenue increased 100 basis points primarily due to higher gross margin.
Direct to Consumer. Income from operations from our direct to consumer segment increased $16.4 million, or 26%, to $78.7 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $62.3 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily the result of increased gross profit of $32.2 million which was primarily due to increased net revenue. This was partially offset by an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses primarily due to higher variable costs including distribution costs, credit card fees, and packaging costs as a result of higher net revenue, as well as higher digital marketing expenses, higher information technology costs, and increased employee costs. Income from operations as a percentage of direct to consumer net revenue decreased 190 basis points primarily due to deleverage on selling, general and administrative expenses.
Other. Other income from operations increased $1.4 million, or 13%, to $12.6 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $11.2 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily the result of increased gross profit of $3.3 million which was primarily due to increased net revenue. The increase in gross profit was partially offset by an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses, primarily due to increased employee costs and increased operating expenses including credit card fees, repairs and maintenance costs, and security costs as a result of higher net revenues and an increase in the number of temporary locations. Income from operations as a percent of other net revenue was consistent with the first quarter of fiscal 2018.
General Corporate Expense. General corporate expense increased $14.9 million, or 22%, to $83.4 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $68.5 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. This increase was primarily due to increases in head office employee costs, professional fees, information technology costs, depreciation, and an increase in net foreign exchange and derivative revaluation losses of $0.5 million.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income, net decreased $0.5 million, or 18%, to $2.4 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from income of $2.9 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in net interest income, primarily due to a decrease in cash and cash equivalents in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 compared to first quarter of fiscal 2018, partially offset by higher rates of return on our cash and cash equivalents, including money market funds, treasury bills, and term deposits.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense increased $2.5 million, or 8%, to $34.6 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $32.1 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The effective tax rate for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 was 26.4% compared to 29.9% for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The decrease in the effective tax rate was primarily due to changes in legislation and guidance related to global intangible low-taxed income ("GILTI") taxes which were introduced during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018, and due to an increase in tax deductions related to stock-based compensation.

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Net Income
Net income increased $21.5 million, or 29%, to $96.6 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $75.2 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. This was primarily due to an increase in gross profit of $77.0 million, partially offset by an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses of $52.5 million, an increase in income tax expense of $2.5 million, and a decrease in other income (expense), net of $0.5 million.
Comparable Store Sales and Total Comparable Sales
We separately track comparable store sales, which reflect net revenue from company-operated stores that have been open for at least 12 full fiscal months, or open for 12 full fiscal months after being significantly expanded. Comparable store sales exclude sales from our direct to consumer and other segments. Total comparable sales combines comparable store sales and direct to consumer sales. In fiscal years following a 53 week year, the prior year period is shifted by one week to compare similar calendar weeks.
The comparable sales measures we report may not be equivalent to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Constant dollar changes in net revenue, total comparable sales, comparable store sales, and direct to consumer net revenue are non-GAAP financial measures.
A constant dollar basis assumes the average foreign exchange rates for the period remained constant with the average foreign exchange rates for the same period of the prior year. We provide constant dollar changes in net revenue, total comparable sales, comparable store sales, and direct to consumer net revenue because we use these measures to understand the underlying growth rate of net revenue excluding the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates. We believe that disclosing these measures on a constant dollar basis is useful to investors because it enables them to better understand the level of growth of our business.
The presentation of this financial information is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for, or with greater prominence to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP. A reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measures follows, which includes more detail on the GAAP financial measure that is most directly comparable to each non-GAAP financial measure, and the related reconciliations between these financial measures.
Constant dollar changes in net revenue
The below changes in net revenue show the change for the quarter ended May 5, 2019 compared to the quarter ended April 29, 2018.
 
 
Net Revenue
 
 
(In thousands)
 
(Percentages)
Change
 
$
132,609

 
20
%
Adjustments due to foreign exchange rate changes
 
12,530

 
2

Change in constant dollars
 
$
145,139

 
22
%

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Constant dollar changes in total comparable sales, comparable store sales, and direct to consumer net revenue
Due to the 53rd week in fiscal 2018, the below changes in total comparable sales, comparable store sales, and direct to consumer net revenue are calculated on a one week shifted basis such that the 13 weeks ended May 5, 2019 is compared to the 13 weeks ended May 6, 2018 rather than April 29, 2018.
 
 
Total Comparable Sales1,2
 
Comparable Store Sales2
 
Direct to Consumer Net Revenue
Change
 
14
%
 
6
%
 
33
%
Adjustments due to foreign exchange rate changes
 
2

 
2

 
2

Change in constant dollars
 
16
%
 
8
%
 
35
%
__________
(1) 
Total comparable sales includes comparable store sales and direct to consumer sales.
(2) 
Comparable store sales reflects net revenue from company-operated stores that have been open for at least 12 full fiscal months, or open for at least 12 full fiscal months after being significantly expanded.
Seasonality
Our business is affected by the general seasonal trends common to the retail apparel industry. Our annual net revenue is weighted more heavily toward our fourth fiscal quarter, reflecting our historical strength in sales during the holiday season, while our operating expenses are more equally distributed throughout the year. As a result, a substantial portion of our operating profits are generated in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year. For example, we generated approximately 47%, 56%, and 47% of our full year operating profit during the fourth quarters of fiscal 2018, fiscal 2017, and fiscal 2016, respectively. Excluding the costs we incurred in connection with the ivivva restructuring, we generated approximately 51% of our operating profit during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are our current balances of cash and cash equivalents, cash flows from operations, and capacity under our revolving credit facility. Our primary cash needs are capital expenditures for opening new stores and remodeling or relocating existing stores, making information technology system investments and enhancements, funding working capital requirements, and making other strategic capital investments both in North America and internationally. We may also use cash to repurchase shares of our common stock. Cash and cash equivalents in excess of our needs are held in interest bearing accounts with financial institutions, as well as in money market funds, treasury bills, and term deposits.
As of May 5, 2019, our working capital, excluding cash and cash equivalents, was $92.4 million, our cash and cash equivalents were $576.2 million, and our capacity under our revolving facility was $398.3 million.
The following table summarizes our net cash flows provided by and used in operating, investing, and financing activities for the periods indicated:
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
May 5, 2019
 
April 29, 2018
 
 
(In thousands)
Total cash (used in) provided by:
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
 
$
(62,803
)
 
$
35,837

Investing activities
 
(63,908
)
 
(34,314
)
Financing activities
 
(170,292
)
 
1,900

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
 
(8,076
)
 
(27,353
)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents
 
$
(305,079
)
 
$
(23,930
)
Operating Activities
Cash flows provided by or used in operating activities consist primarily of net income adjusted for certain items including depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense, and the effect of changes in operating assets and liabilities.

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Cash used in operating activities increased $98.6 million, to $62.8 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 compared to cash provided by $35.8 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018, primarily as a result of the following:
an increase in cash used in operating activities of $126.3 million as a result of the change in operating assets and liabilities, primarily due to the following:
$95.5 million related to income taxes, primarily due to payments for withholding taxes on repatriated foreign earnings, as well as timing of tax installments;
$18.3 million related to accrued compensation and related expenses, primarily due to payments made under the Company's incentive compensation plans; and
$6.5 million related to inventory, primarily due to an increase in inventory purchases.
This was partially offset by an increase of $21.5 million in net income, and an increase of $6.2 million in non-cash expenses primarily related to an increase in depreciation and stock-based compensation.
Investing Activities
Cash flows used in investing activities relate to capital expenditures, the settlement of net investment hedges, and other investing activities. The capital expenditures were primarily for opening new company-operated stores, remodeling or relocating certain stores, and ongoing store refurbishment. We also had capital expenditures related to information technology and business systems, related to corporate buildings, and for opening retail locations other than company-operated stores.
Cash used in investing activities increased $29.6 million to $63.9 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 from $34.3 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily the result of an increase in capital expenditures related to our company-operated stores, primarily as a result of an increased number of new company-operated stores as well as an increase in renovations and relocations of existing stores. Increased corporate capital expenditures primarily related to information technology and business systems, as well as increased capital expenditures related to our direct to consumer channel, also contributed to the increase in cash used in investing activities.
Financing Activities
Cash flows used in financing activities consist primarily of cash used to repurchase shares of our common stock and certain cash flows related to stock-based compensation.
Cash used in financing activities increased $172.2 million to $170.3 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 compared to cash provided by $1.9 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily the result of our stock repurchases.
On November 29, 2017, our board of directors approved a program to repurchase shares of our common stock up to an aggregate value of $200.0 million, and on June 6, 2018, the board of directors approved an increase to this stock repurchase program, authorizing the repurchase of up to a total of $600.0 million of our common shares. On January 31, 2019, the Company's board of directors approved an additional stock repurchase program for up to $500.0 million of the Company's common shares on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.
Our cash used in financing activities for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 included $163.5 million to repurchase 1.0 million shares of our common stock compared to $7.5 thousand to repurchase 100 shares for the first quarter of fiscal 2018. During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, we repurchased 1.0 million shares in a private transaction. The other common stock was repurchased in the open market at prevailing market prices, including under plans complying with the provisions of Rule 10b5-1 and Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, with the timing and actual number of shares repurchased depending upon market conditions, eligibility to trade, and other factors.
We believe that our cash and cash equivalent balances, cash generated from operations, and borrowings available to us under our revolving credit facility will be adequate to meet our liquidity needs and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our cash from operations may be negatively impacted by a decrease in demand for our products as well as the other factors described in Item 1 of Part II of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition, we may make discretionary capital improvements with respect to our stores, distribution facilities, headquarters, or systems, or we may repurchase shares under an approved stock repurchase program, which we would expect to fund through the use of cash, issuance of debt or equity securities or other external financing sources to the extent we were unable to fund such capital expenditures out of our cash and cash equivalents and cash generated from operations.

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Revolving Credit Facility
On December 15, 2016, we entered into a credit agreement for $150.0 million under an unsecured five-year revolving credit facility. Bank of America, N.A., is administrative agent and HSBC Bank Canada is the syndication agent and letter of credit issuer, and the lenders party thereto. Borrowings under the revolving credit facility may be made, in U.S. Dollars, Euros, Canadian Dollars, and in other currencies, subject to the approval of the administrative agent and the lenders. Up to $35.0 million of the revolving credit facility is available for the issuance of letters of credit and up to $25.0 million is available for the issuance of swing line loans. Commitments under the revolving credit facility may be increased by up to $200.0 million, subject to certain conditions, including the approval of the lenders. Borrowings under the agreement may be prepaid and commitments may be reduced or terminated without premium or penalty (other than customary breakage costs). The principal amount outstanding under the credit agreement, if any, will be due and payable in full on December 15, 2021, subject to provisions that permit us to request a limited number of one year extensions annually.
Borrowings made under the revolving credit facility bear interest at a rate per annum equal to, at our option, either (a) a rate based on the rates applicable for deposits on the interbank market for U.S. Dollars or the applicable currency in which the borrowings are made ("LIBOR") or (b) an alternate base rate, plus, in each case, an applicable margin. The applicable margin is determined by reference to a pricing grid, based on the ratio of indebtedness to earnings before interest, tax depreciation, amortization, and rent ("EBITDAR") and ranges between 1.00%-1.75% for LIBOR loans and 0.00%-0.75% for alternate base rate loans. Additionally, a commitment fee of between 0.125%-0.200%, also determined by reference to the pricing grid, is payable on the average daily unused amounts under the revolving credit facility.
The credit agreement contains negative covenants that, among other things and subject to certain exceptions, limit the ability of our subsidiaries to incur indebtedness, incur liens, undergo fundamental changes, make dispositions of all or substantially all of their assets, alter their businesses and enter into agreements limiting subsidiary dividends and distributions.
We are also required to maintain a consolidated rent-adjusted leverage ratio of not greater than 3.50:1.00 and we are not permitted to allow the ratio of consolidated EBITDAR to consolidated interest charges (plus rent) to be less than 2.00:1.00. The credit agreement also contains certain customary representations, warranties, affirmative covenants, and events of default (including, among others, an event of default upon the occurrence of a change of control). If an event of default occurs, the credit agreement may be terminated and the maturity of any outstanding amounts may be accelerated.
On June 6, 2018, we entered into Amendment No. 1 to the credit agreement. The Amendment amends the credit agreement to provide for (i) an increase in the aggregate commitments under the unsecured five-year revolving credit facility to $400.0 million, with an increase of the sub-limits for the issuance of letters of credit and extensions of swing line loans to $50.0 million for each, (ii) an increase in the option, subject to certain conditions as set forth in the credit agreement, to request increases in commitments under the revolving facility from $400.0 million to $600.0 million and (iii) an extension in the maturity of the revolving facility from December 15, 2021 to June 6, 2023.
In addition, the Amendment decreases the applicable margins for LIBOR loans from 1.00%-1.75% to 1.00%-1.50% and for alternate base rate loans from 0.00%-0.75% to 0.00%-0.50%, reduces the commitment fee on average daily unused amounts under the revolving facility from 0.125%-0.200% to 0.10%-0.20%, and reduces fees for unused letters of credit from 1.00%-1.75% to 1.00%-1.50%.
As of May 5, 2019, aside from letters of credit of $1.7 million, we had no other borrowings outstanding under this credit facility.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We enter into standby letters of credit to secure certain of our obligations, including leases, taxes, and duties. As of May 5, 2019, letters of credit and letters of guarantee totaling $1.7 million had been issued.
We have not entered into any transactions, agreements or other contractual arrangements to which an entity unconsolidated with us is a party and under which we have (i) any obligation under a guarantee, (ii) any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity, (iii) any obligation under derivative instruments that are indexed to our shares and classified as equity in our consolidated balance sheets, or (iv) any obligation arising out of a variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions. Predicting future events is inherently an imprecise activity and, as such,

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requires the use of judgment. Actual results may vary from our estimates in amounts that may be material to the financial statements. An accounting policy is deemed to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and if different estimates that reasonably could have been used or changes in the accounting estimates that are reasonably likely to occur periodically, could materially impact our consolidated financial statements. Our critical accounting policies and estimates are discussed in our fiscal 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 27, 2019, and in Notes 2, 5, and 6 included in Item 1 of Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Operating Locations
Our company-operated stores by country as of May 5, 2019 and February 3, 2019 are summarized in the table below.
 
 
May 5,
2019
 
February 3,
2019
United States
 
291

 
285

Canada
 
64

 
64

Australia
 
31

 
29

China (1)
 
26

 
22

United Kingdom
 
12

 
12

New Zealand
 
7

 
7

Japan
 
6

 
5

Germany
 
5

 
5

South Korea
 
5

 
4

Singapore
 
3

 
3

France
 
1

 
1

Ireland
 
1

 
1

Netherlands
 
1

 

Sweden
 
1

 
1

Switzerland
 
1

 
1

Total company-operated stores
 
455

 
440

__________
(1) 
Included within China as of May 5, 2019, were six company-operated stores in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, one company-operated store in the Macao Special Administration Region, and one company-operated store in the Taiwan Province. As of February 3, 2019, there were five company-operated stores in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, one company-operated store in the Macao Special Administration Region, and one company-operated store in the Taiwan Province.
Retail locations operated by third parties under license and supply arrangements are not included in the above table. As of May 5, 2019, there were eight licensed locations, including four in Mexico, three in the United Arab Emirates, and one in Qatar.
ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk. The functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries is generally the applicable local currency. Our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars. Therefore, the net revenue, expenses, assets, and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries are translated from their functional currencies into U.S. dollars. Fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar affect the reported amounts of net revenue, expenses, assets, and liabilities. Foreign exchange differences which arise on translation of our foreign subsidiaries' balance sheets into U.S. dollars are recorded as a foreign currency translation adjustment in accumulated other comprehensive income or loss within stockholders' equity.
We also have exposure to changes in foreign exchange rates associated with transactions which are undertaken by our subsidiaries in currencies other than their functional currency. Such transactions include intercompany transactions and inventory purchases denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the purchasing entity. As a result, we have been impacted by changes in exchange rates and may be impacted for the foreseeable future. The potential impact of currency fluctuation increases as our international expansion increases.
As of May 5, 2019, we had certain forward currency contracts outstanding in order to hedge a portion of the foreign currency exposure that arises on translation of a Canadian subsidiary into U.S. dollars. We also had certain forward currency

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contracts outstanding in an effort to reduce our exposure to the foreign exchange revaluation gains and losses that are recognized by our Canadian subsidiaries on U.S. dollar denominated monetary assets and liabilities. Please refer to Note 6 to the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements included in Item 1 of Part I of this report for further information, including details of the notional amounts outstanding.
In the future, in an effort to reduce foreign exchange risks, we may enter into further derivative financial instruments including hedging additional currency pairs. We do not, and do not intend to, engage in the practice of trading derivative securities for profit.
We currently generate a significant portion of our net revenue and incur a significant portion of our expenses in Canada. We also hold a significant portion of our net assets in Canada. The reporting currency for our consolidated financial statements is the U.S. dollar. A strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar results in:
the following impacts to the consolidated statements of operations:
a decrease in our net revenue upon translation of the sales made by our Canadian operations into U.S. dollars for the purposes of consolidation;
a decrease in our selling, general and administrative expenses incurred by our Canadian operations upon translation into U.S. dollars for the purposes of consolidation;
foreign exchange revaluation gains by our Canadian subsidiaries on U.S. dollar denominated monetary assets and liabilities; and
derivative valuation losses on forward currency contracts not designated in a hedging relationship;
the following impacts to the consolidated balance sheets:
a decrease in the foreign currency translation adjustment which arises on the translation of our Canadian subsidiaries' balance sheets into U.S. dollars; and
an increase in the foreign currency translation adjustment from derivative valuation losses on forward currency contracts, entered into as net investment hedges of a Canadian subsidiary.
During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, the change in the relative value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar resulted in a $16.8 million increase in accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders' equity. During the first quarter of fiscal 2018, the change in the relative value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar resulted in a $45.8 million increase in accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders' equity.
A 10% appreciation in the relative value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar compared to the exchange rates in effect for the first quarter of fiscal 2019 would have resulted in additional income from operations of approximately $1.5 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2019. This assumes a consistent 10% appreciation in the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar throughout the first quarter of fiscal 2019. The timing of changes in the relative value of the U.S. dollar combined with the seasonal nature of our business, can affect the magnitude of the impact that fluctuations in foreign exchange rates have on our income from operations.
Interest Rate Risk. Our revolving credit facility provides us with available borrowings in an amount up to $400.0 million in the aggregate. Because our revolving credit facility bears interest at a variable rate, we will be exposed to market risks relating to changes in interest rates, if we have a meaningful outstanding balance. As of May 5, 2019, aside from letters of credit of $1.7 million, we had no other borrowings outstanding under this credit facility. We currently do not engage in any interest rate hedging activity and currently have no intention to do so. However, in the future, if we have a meaningful outstanding balance under our revolving facility, in an effort to mitigate losses associated with these risks, we may at times enter into derivative financial instruments, although we have not historically done so. These may take the form of forward contracts, option contracts, or interest rate swaps. We do not, and do not intend to, engage in the practice of trading derivative securities for profit.
Our cash and cash equivalent balances are held in the form of cash on hand, bank balances, short-term deposits and treasury bills with original maturities of three months or less, and in money market funds. We do not believe these balances are subject to material interest rate risk.
Credit Risk. We have cash on deposit with various large, reputable financial institutions and have invested in U.S. and Canadian Treasury Bills, and in AAA-rated money market funds. The amount of cash and cash equivalents held with certain financial institutions exceeds government-insured limits. We are also exposed to credit-related losses in the event of nonperformance by the financial institutions that are counterparties to our forward currency contracts. The credit risk amount is

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our unrealized gains on our derivative instruments, based on foreign currency rates at the time of nonperformance. We have not experienced any losses related to these items, and we believe credit risk to be minimal. We seek to minimize our credit risk by entering into transactions with credit worthy and reputable financial institutions and by monitoring the credit standing of the financial institutions with whom we transact. We seek to limit the amount of exposure with any one counterparty.
Inflation
Inflationary factors such as increases in the cost of our product and overhead costs may adversely affect our operating results. Although we do not believe that inflation has had a material impact on our financial position or results of operations to date, a high rate of inflation in the future may have an adverse effect on our ability to maintain current levels of gross margin and selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of net revenue if the selling prices of our products do not increase with these increased costs.
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC's rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer, to allow timely decisions to be made regarding required disclosure. We have established a Disclosure Committee, consisting of certain members of management, to assist in this evaluation. The Disclosure Committee meets on a quarterly basis, and as needed.
Our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) promulgated under the Exchange Act) at May 5, 2019. Based on that evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer concluded that, at May 5, 2019, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended May 5, 2019 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

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PART II
OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In addition to the legal matters described in Note 11 to the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements included in Item 1 of Part I of this report and in our fiscal 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are, from time to time, involved in routine legal matters incidental to the conduct of our business, including legal matters such as initiation and defense of proceedings to protect intellectual property rights, personal injury claims, product liability claims, employment claims, and similar matters. We believe the ultimate resolution of any such current proceeding will not have a material adverse effect on our continued financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to the other information contained in this Form 10-Q and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our 2018 fiscal year, the following risk factors should be considered carefully in evaluating our business. Our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. Please note that additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial could also impair our business and operations.
Our success depends on our ability to maintain the value and reputation of our brand.
Our success depends on the value and reputation of the lululemon brand. The lululemon name is integral to our business as well as to the implementation of our strategies for expanding our business. Maintaining, promoting, and positioning our brand will depend largely on the success of our marketing and merchandising efforts and our ability to provide a consistent, high quality product, and guest experience. We rely on social media, as one of our marketing strategies, to have a positive impact on both our brand value and reputation. Our brand and reputation could be adversely affected if we fail to achieve these objectives, if our public image was to be tarnished by negative publicity, if we fail to deliver innovative and high quality products acceptable to our guests, or if we face or mishandle a product recall. Negative publicity regarding the production methods of any of our suppliers or manufacturers could adversely affect our reputation and sales and force us to locate alternative suppliers or manufacturing sources. Additionally, while we devote considerable efforts and resources to protecting our intellectual property, if these efforts are not successful the value of our brand may be harmed. Any harm to our brand and reputation could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
If any of our products are unacceptable to us or our guests, our business could be harmed.
We have occasionally received, and may in the future receive, shipments of products that fail to comply with our technical specifications or that fail to conform to our quality control standards. We have also received, and may in the future receive, products that are otherwise unacceptable to us or our guests. Under these circumstances, unless we are able to obtain replacement products in a timely manner, we risk the loss of net revenue resulting from the inability to sell those products and related increased administrative and shipping costs. Additionally, if the unacceptability of our products is not discovered until after such products are purchased by our guests, our guests could lose confidence in our products or we could face a product recall and our results of operations could suffer and our business, reputation, and brand could be harmed.
We operate in a highly competitive market and the size and resources of some of our competitors may allow them to compete more effectively than we can, resulting in a loss of our market share and a decrease in our net revenue and profitability.
The market for technical athletic apparel is highly competitive. Competition may result in pricing pressures, reduced profit margins or lost market share, or a failure to grow or maintain our market share, any of which could substantially harm our business and results of operations. We compete directly against wholesalers and direct retailers of athletic apparel, including large, diversified apparel companies with substantial market share and established companies expanding their production and marketing of technical athletic apparel, as well as against retailers specifically focused on women's athletic apparel. We also face competition from wholesalers and direct retailers of traditional commodity athletic apparel, such as cotton T-shirts and sweatshirts. Many of our competitors are large apparel and sporting goods companies with strong worldwide brand recognition. Because of the fragmented nature of the industry, we also compete with other apparel sellers, including those specializing in yoga apparel and other activewear. Many of our competitors have significant competitive advantages, including longer operating histories, larger and broader customer bases, more established relationships with a broader set of suppliers, greater brand recognition and greater financial, research and development, store development, marketing, distribution, and other resources than we do.

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Our competitors may be able to achieve and maintain brand awareness and market share more quickly and effectively than we can. In contrast to our "grassroots" marketing approach, many of our competitors promote their brands through traditional forms of advertising, such as print media and television commercials, and through celebrity endorsements, and have substantial resources to devote to such efforts. Our competitors may also create and maintain brand awareness using traditional forms of advertising more quickly than we can. Our competitors may also be able to increase sales in their new and existing markets faster than we do by emphasizing different distribution channels than we do, such as catalog sales or an extensive franchise network.
In addition, because we hold limited patents and exclusive intellectual property rights in the technology, fabrics or processes underlying our products, our current and future competitors are able to manufacture and sell products with performance characteristics, fabrication techniques, and styling similar to our products.
Our reliance on suppliers to provide fabrics for and to produce our products could cause problems in our supply chain.
We do not manufacture our products or the raw materials for them and rely instead on suppliers. Many of the specialty fabrics used in our products are technically advanced textile products developed and manufactured by third parties and may be available, in the short-term, from only one or a very limited number of sources. We work with a group of approximately 65 suppliers to provide the fabrics for our products. In fiscal 2018, approximately 60% of our fabrics were produced by our top five fabric suppliers, and the largest single manufacturer produced approximately 35% of raw materials used. We work with a group of approximately 44 vendors that manufacture our products, five of which produced approximately 60% of our products in fiscal 2018. During fiscal 2018, the largest single manufacturer produced approximately 21% of our product offerings. We have no long-term contracts with any of our suppliers or manufacturing sources for the production and supply of our fabrics and garments, and we compete with other companies for fabrics, raw materials, and production.
We have experienced, and may in the future experience, a significant disruption in the supply of fabrics or raw materials from current sources and we may be unable to locate alternative materials suppliers of comparable quality at an acceptable price, or at all. In addition, if we experience significant increased demand, or if we need to replace an existing supplier or manufacturer, we may be unable to locate additional supplies of fabrics or raw materials or additional manufacturing capacity on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, or we may be unable to locate any supplier or manufacturer with sufficient capacity to meet our requirements or to fill our orders in a timely manner. Identifying a suitable supplier is an involved process that requires us to become satisfied with its quality control, responsiveness and service, financial stability, and labor and other ethical practices. Even if we are able to expand existing or find new manufacturing or fabric sources, we may encounter delays in production and added costs as a result of the time it takes to train our suppliers and manufacturers in our methods, products, and quality control standards. Delays related to supplier changes could also arise due to an increase in shipping times if new suppliers are located farther away from our markets or from other participants in our supply chain. Any delays, interruption, or increased costs in the supply of fabric or manufacture of our products could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet guest demand for our products and result in lower net revenue and income from operations both in the short and long term.
An economic downturn or economic uncertainty in our key markets may adversely affect consumer discretionary spending and demand for our products.
Many of our products may be considered discretionary items for consumers. Factors affecting the level of consumer spending for such discretionary items include general economic conditions, particularly those in North America, and other factors such as consumer confidence in future economic conditions, fears of recession, the availability and cost of consumer credit, levels of unemployment, and tax rates. As global economic conditions continue to be volatile or economic uncertainty remains, trends in consumer discretionary spending also remain unpredictable and subject to reductions due to credit constraints and uncertainties about the future. Unfavorable economic conditions may lead consumers to delay or reduce purchases of our products. Consumer demand for our products may not reach our targets, or may decline, when there is an economic downturn or economic uncertainty in our key markets, particularly in North America. Our sensitivity to economic cycles and any related fluctuation in consumer demand may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Our sales and profitability may decline as a result of increasing product costs and decreasing selling prices.
Our business is subject to significant pressure on costs and pricing caused by many factors, including intense competition, constrained sourcing capacity and related inflationary pressure, pressure from consumers to reduce the prices we charge for our products, and changes in consumer demand. These factors may cause us to experience increased costs, reduce our prices to consumers or experience reduced sales in response to increased prices, any of which could cause our operating margin to decline if we are unable to offset these factors with reductions in operating costs and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

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If we are unable to anticipate consumer preferences and successfully develop and introduce new, innovative, and updated products, we may not be able to maintain or increase our sales and profitability.
Our success depends on our ability to identify and originate product trends as well as to anticipate and react to changing consumer demands in a timely manner. All of our products are subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. If we are unable to introduce new products or novel technologies in a timely manner or our new products or technologies are not accepted by our guests, our competitors may introduce similar products in a more timely fashion, which could hurt our goal to be viewed as a leader in technical athletic apparel innovation. Our new products may not receive consumer acceptance as consumer preferences could shift rapidly to different types of athletic apparel or away from these types of products altogether, and our future success depends in part on our ability to anticipate and respond to these changes. Our failure to anticipate and respond in a timely manner to changing consumer preferences could lead to, among other things, lower sales and excess inventory levels. Even if we are successful in anticipating consumer preferences, our ability to adequately react to and address those preferences will in part depend upon our continued ability to develop and introduce innovative, high-quality products. Our failure to effectively introduce new products that are accepted by consumers could result in a decrease in net revenue and excess inventory levels, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Our results of operations could be materially harmed if we are unable to accurately forecast guest demand for our products.
To ensure adequate inventory supply, we must forecast inventory needs and place orders with our manufacturers based on our estimates of future demand for particular products. Our ability to accurately forecast demand for our products could be affected by many factors, including an increase or decrease in guest demand for our products or for products of our competitors, our failure to accurately forecast guest acceptance of new products, product introductions by competitors, unanticipated changes in general market conditions, and weakening of economic conditions or consumer confidence in future economic conditions. If we fail to accurately forecast guest demand, we may experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of products available for sale in our stores or for delivery to guests.
Inventory levels in excess of guest demand may result in inventory write-downs or write-offs and the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices, which would cause our gross margin to suffer and could impair the strength and exclusivity of our brand. Conversely, if we underestimate guest demand for our products, our manufacturers may not be able to deliver products to meet our requirements, and this could result in damage to our reputation and guest relationships.
Our inability to safeguard against security breaches or our failure to comply with data privacy laws could damage our customer relationships and result in significant legal and financial exposure.
As part of our normal operations, we receive confidential, proprietary, and personally identifiable information, including credit card information, and information about our customers, our employees, job applicants, and other third parties. Our business employs systems and websites that allow for the storage and transmission of this information. However, despite our safeguards and security processes and protections, security breaches could expose us to a risk of theft or misuse of this information, and could result in litigation and potential liability. The retail industry, in particular, has been the target of many recent cyber-attacks. We may not have the resources or technical sophistication to be able to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber-attacks. Attacks may be targeted at us, our vendors or customers, or others who have entrusted us with information. In addition, despite taking measures to safeguard our information security and privacy environment from security breaches, our customers and our business could still be exposed to risk. Actual or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third party experts and consultants. Advances in computer capabilities, new technological discoveries or other developments may result in the technology used by us to protect transaction or other data being breached or compromised. Measures we implement to protect against cyber-attacks may also have the potential to impact our customers' shopping experience or decrease activity on our websites by making them more difficult to use. Data and security breaches can also occur as a result of non-technical issues including intentional or inadvertent breach by employees or persons with whom we have commercial relationships that result in the unauthorized release of personal or confidential information. Any compromise or breach of our security could result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, and damage to our brand and reputation or other harm to our business.
Additionally, the European Union has adopted a comprehensive General Data Privacy Regulation (the "GDPR"). The GDPR requires companies to satisfy new requirements regarding the handling of personal and sensitive data, including its use, protection and the ability of persons whose data is stored to correct or delete such data about themselves. Failure to comply with GDPR requirements could result in penalties of up to four percent of worldwide revenue. The GDPR and other similar laws and regulations, as well as any associated inquiries or investigations or any other government actions, may be costly to comply with, increase our operating costs, require significant management time and attention, and subject us to remedies that

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may harm our business, including fines, negative publicity, or demands or orders that we modify or cease existing business practices.
Any material disruption of our information technology systems or unexpected network interruption could disrupt our business and reduce our sales.
We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and third-parties to operate our e-commerce websites, process transactions, respond to guest inquiries, manage inventory, purchase, sell and ship goods on a timely basis, and maintain cost-efficient operations. The failure of our information technology systems to operate properly or effectively, problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems, or difficulty in integrating new systems, could adversely affect our business. In addition, we have e-commerce websites in the United States, Canada, and internationally. Our information technology systems, websites, and operations of third parties on whom we rely, may encounter damage or disruption or slowdown caused by a failure to successfully upgrade systems, system failures, viruses, computer "hackers", natural disasters, or other causes. These could cause information, including data related to guest orders, to be lost or delayed which could, especially if the disruption or slowdown occurred during the holiday season, result in delays in the delivery of products to our stores and guests or lost sales, which could reduce demand for our products and cause our sales to decline. The concentration of our primary offices, two of our distribution centers, and a number of our stores along the west coast of North America could amplify the impact of a natural disaster occurring in that area to our business, including to our information technology systems. In addition, if changes in technology cause our information systems to become obsolete, or if our information systems are inadequate to handle our growth, we could lose guests. We have limited back-up systems and redundancies, and our information technology systems and websites have experienced system failures and electrical outages in the past which have disrupted our operations. Any significant disruption in our information technology systems or websites could harm our reputation and credibility, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
If the technology-based systems that give our customers the ability to shop with us online do not function effectively, our operating results, as well as our ability to grow our e-commerce business globally, could be materially adversely affected.
Many of our customers shop with us through our e-commerce websites and mobile apps. Increasingly, customers are using tablets and smart phones to shop online with us and with our competitors and to do comparison shopping. We are increasingly using social media and proprietary mobile apps to interact with our customers and as a means to enhance their shopping experience. Any failure on our part to provide attractive, effective, reliable, user-friendly e-commerce platforms that offer a wide assortment of merchandise with rapid delivery options and that continually meet the changing expectations of online shoppers could place us at a competitive disadvantage, result in the loss of e-commerce and other sales, harm our reputation with customers, have a material adverse impact on the growth of our e-commerce business globally and could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Changes in consumer shopping preferences and shifts in distribution channels could materially impact our results of operations.
We sell our products through a variety of trade channels, with a significant portion through traditional brick-and-mortar retail channels. As strong e-commerce channels emerge and develop, we are evolving towards an omni-channel approach to support the shopping behavior of our guests. This involves country and region specific websites, social media, product notification emails, mobile apps, including mobile apps on in-store devices that allow demand to be fulfilled via our distribution centers, and online order fulfillment through stores. The diversion of sales from our company-operated stores could adversely impact our return on investment and could lead to store closures and impairment charges. We could have difficulty in recreating the in-store experience through direct channels. We could also be exposed to liability for online content. Our failure to successfully integrate our digital and physical channels and respond to these risks might adversely impact our business and results of operations, as well as damage our reputation and brands.
The fluctuating cost of raw materials could increase our cost of goods sold and cause our results of operations and financial condition to suffer.
The fabrics used by our suppliers and manufacturers include synthetic fabrics whose raw materials include petroleum-based products. Our products also include silver and natural fibers, including cotton. Our costs for raw materials are affected by, among other things, weather, consumer demand, speculation on the commodities market, the relative valuations and fluctuations of the currencies of producer versus consumer countries, and other factors that are generally unpredictable and beyond our control. Increases in the cost of raw materials, including petroleum or the prices we pay for silver and our cotton yarn and cotton-based textiles, could have a material adverse effect on our cost of goods sold, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.

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Our limited operating experience and limited brand recognition in new international markets may limit our expansion and cause our business and growth to suffer.
Our future growth depends in part on our expansion efforts outside of North America. We have limited experience with regulatory environments and market practices internationally, and we may not be able to penetrate or successfully operate in any new market. In connection with our expansion efforts we may encounter obstacles we did not face in North America, including cultural and linguistic differences, differences in regulatory environments, labor practices and market practices, difficulties in keeping abreast of market, business and technical developments, and foreign guests' tastes and preferences. We may also encounter difficulty expanding into new international markets because of limited brand recognition leading to delayed acceptance of our technical athletic apparel by guests in these new international markets. Our failure to develop our business in new international markets or disappointing growth outside of existing markets could harm our business and results of operations.
If we encounter problems with our distribution system, our ability to deliver our products to the market and to meet guest expectations could be harmed.
We rely on our distribution facilities for substantially all of our product distribution. Our distribution facilities include computer controlled and automated equipment, which means their operations may be subject to a number of risks related to security or computer viruses, the proper operation of software and hardware, electronic or power interruptions, or other system failures. In addition, our operations could also be interrupted by labor difficulties, extreme or severe weather conditions or by floods, fires, or other natural disasters near our distribution centers. If we encounter problems with our distribution system, our ability to meet guest expectations, manage inventory, complete sales, and achieve objectives for operating efficiencies could be harmed.
Our fabrics and manufacturing technology generally are not patented and can be imitated by our competitors.
The intellectual property rights in the technology, fabrics, and processes used to manufacture our products generally are owned or controlled by our suppliers and are generally not unique to us. Our ability to obtain intellectual property protection for our products is therefore limited and we do not generally own patents or hold exclusive intellectual property rights in the technology, fabrics or processes underlying our products. As a result, our current and future competitors are able to manufacture and sell products with performance characteristics, fabrics and styling similar to our products. Because many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, distribution, marketing, and other resources than we do, they may be able to manufacture and sell products based on our fabrics and manufacturing technology at lower prices than we can. If our competitors do sell similar products to ours at lower prices, our net revenue and profitability could suffer.
Our failure or inability to protect our intellectual property rights could diminish the value of our brand and weaken our competitive position.
We currently rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade dress, and unfair competition laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and licensing arrangements, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. The steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate to prevent infringement of these rights by others, including imitation of our products and misappropriation of our brand. In addition, intellectual property protection may be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries where laws or law enforcement practices may not protect our intellectual property rights as fully as in the United States or Canada, and it may be more difficult for us to successfully challenge the use of our intellectual property rights by other parties in these countries. If we fail to protect and maintain our intellectual property rights, the value of our brand could be diminished, and our competitive position may suffer.
Our ability to source our merchandise profitably or at all could be hurt if new trade restrictions are imposed or existing trade restrictions become more burdensome.
The United States and the countries in which our products are produced or sold internationally have imposed and may impose additional quotas, duties, tariffs, or other restrictions or regulations, or may adversely adjust prevailing quota, duty, or tariff levels. The results of any audits or related disputes regarding these restrictions or regulations could have an adverse effect on our financial statements for the period or periods for which the applicable final determinations are made. Countries impose, modify, and remove tariffs and other trade restrictions in response to a diverse array of factors, including global and national economic and political conditions, which make it impossible for us to predict future developments regarding tariffs and other trade restrictions. Trade restrictions, including tariffs, quotas, embargoes, safeguards, and customs restrictions, could increase the cost or reduce the supply of products available to us, could increase shipping times, or may require us to modify our supply chain organization or other current business practices, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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We are dependent on international trade agreements and regulations. If the United States were to withdraw from or materially modify certain international trade agreements, our business could be adversely affected. There are also uncertainties related to the implementation of the United Kingdom's referendum to withdraw membership from the European Union (referred to as "Brexit").
Changes in tax laws or unanticipated tax liabilities could adversely affect our effective income tax rate and profitability.
We are subject to the income tax laws of the United States, Canada, and several other international jurisdictions. Our effective